How Do Vaccines Work?


Children receive vaccine either by shots or through nasal spray. Irrespective of how they are given, the principle behind vaccines remains the same. To understand how vaccines work, it’s important to understand how body immune system works.

Body Immune System

When your child’s body is invaded by disease causing organisms, white blood cells are activated and begin making proteins (or antibodies), which create counter offensive attack to help your child stop any infections. After the antibodies are through with their work, they don’t disappear but remain in the bloodstream ready for the return of the same invaders. If the germs re-appear in a few weeks, months or years, the antibodies will still be ready to protect. They can stop the infection altogether or before initial symptoms even appear. This is main reason why people who had measles or mumps in their childhood, never get it again irrespective how frequent they are exposed to similar infectious agents.

So how do Vaccines work?

Vaccines are made from dead or weakened forms of the virus or bacteria responsible for the disease. In other cases, inactivated toxins made by the virus or bacteria are used. When the vaccine is introduced to your child’s body, his or her immune system detects the weakened or the dead germ and reacts as it would when a full blown infection occurred. It makes antibodies against the vaccine. As aforementioned, these antibodies remain in the body ready to react to any new case of the germs’ attack. In other words, the vaccine is used to trick the body into thinking that it is under attack, and makes weapons that provide defense against real infection.

There are certain viruses which changes making the existing antibodies ineffective. That’s the case with influenza virus. For such, vaccination is necessary every year.

Newborns are immune to certain infections simply because they had received antibodies from their mothers. However, the immunity fades in the initial months of life. Accordingly, it’s pertinent to follow immunization guidelines given by your local pediatrician.

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Early Symptoms Of Emphysema


Emphysema is a type of chronic lung disease.  In most people it is caused by a history of smoking.  Due to the lung damage caused from cigarettes, people with this disease have difficulties blowing air out of their airway.  However, catching symptoms early can help minimize the progression and discomfort emphysema causes.

Shortness of Breath:  The Early Symptom

Shortness of breath is one of the early symptoms of emphysema, and it is the most common. This disease is progressive and symptoms then evolve into coughing and wheezing.  Most patients who have been diagnosed with emphysema first noticed their symptoms when they quickly became out of breath from doing something that previously didn’t cause them to feel winded, such as walking up the stairs, carrying groceries into the house, or even mowing the lawn. Patients who are at risk for emphysema should keep these early symptoms in mind and report them to their doctor if they notice they are feeling more winded than normal when doing routine activities.

Causes of Shortness of Breath from Emphysema

For patients who have this common lung disease, structural changes in the lungs lead to patient being more winded than usual.  These small structural changes occur over time in response to being exposed to the toxins in cigarettes.  The toxins cause the linings in between the air sacs to be destroyed and producing air pockets in the damaged lungs.  The air in these pockets is challenging to exhale.  In turn, the lungs become bigger overtime and make normal breathing more difficult, requiring additional effort.  This means that the muscles that assist in breathing are made to work harder and will wear out sooner.  Patients struggle with feeling like they cannot catch their breath.  Early on in the progression of the disease people only notice their winded feeling with activities that require physical exertion.  However, as the disease continues to progress the shortness of breath is then felt while simply resting.

Other Symptoms

Additional symptoms of emphysema include:
• Wheezing
• Coughing
• Chest tightness
• Chest pain
• Poor sleeping
• Depression
• Sexual dysfunction
• Loss of appetite
• Weight loss

You can avoid emphysema by not smoking or quitting as soon as possible.  If you notice any of the aforementioned symptoms, contact your physician.

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Flexor Tendinitis Explained Simply


Flexor tendinitis is a common ailment of the hand and wrist that results from inflammation of the flexor tendons. These tendons are located in the palms of the hands as well as in the inner sections of the wrists. These bands of strong connective tissues attach to the muscles of the hand and act as a series of pulley structures, allowing the complex movements of the hands and fingers. When the flexor tendons become inflamed and irritated, movement becomes painful and the wrist muscles become sensitive to pressure.

The flexor tendons are made from both elastin and collagen, making them flexible as well as strong. They’re surrounded by synovium, a sheath of tissue that allows for fluid movement. When this type of tendinitis occurs, small tears appear in the individual tendon fibers. The tears trigger the body’s natural inflammatory response, and if left untreated the tendons can become irregular and thickened. The result is quite painful hand movement, sometimes requiring injections of steroid medications as a treatment measure. In the most serious cases, hand surgery may be required to relieve this condition and restore normal hand movement.

One of the most common causes of this problem is repetitive hand movements over a period of time. Examples include sewing, typing or working on a factory assembly line while repeating the same task over and over. People with certain existing health conditions are also more prone to flexor tendinitis in many cases, including arthritis, Type 2 diabetes or gout. The tendency to develop this problem is partially hereditary as well. Some people’s genetics simply dictate that more fluid naturally collects in the spaces between their tendons and muscles, which can exacerbate the issue of tendinitis. Common recommended remedies include ice packs, gentle wrist exercises and the use of ergonomic wrist supports. If at all possible, sufferers are advised to avoid or reduce the repetitive motions that cause the condition. Doctors advise cold compression therapy with wrist wraps to help relieve the pain and stiffness of this common inflammation of the wrists.

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The Most Dangerous Germs In The World


Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRSA is a strain of the common staphylococcus bacteria that is resistant to most antibiotics. MRSA is very contagious and health-threatening especially when it strikes individuals who are immune-compromised due to other diseases or conditions. If treated in time, there is a very good prognosis for the patient.

E Coli and Klebsiella
Escheria Coli and klebsiella, more commonly known as E. Coli, are very harmful bacteria that can be transmitted through undercooked or improperly handled food. In the past, E Coli caused mainly diarrhea and severe stomachaches but as the bacteria evolved and became drug-resistant, it can now lead to severe complications that could even be fatal.

Acinetobacter baumannii
Nicknamed “Iraqibacter” because of the prevalence of infection among wounded soldiers who served in Iraq, A. baumannii is a pathogenic bacterium that can infect the body through wounds, sores and other cuts or openings in the skin. The likelihood of becoming infected from this bacterium can be decreased by practicing thorough personal hygiene.

Rabies is a type of virus that belongs to the Lyssavirus genus. It is usually contracted by humans through the saliva of infected animals such as dogs, bats, raccoons, monkeys and foxes, among others. Rabies affects the nervous system and the brain. It can be fatal without treatment. Fatalities, however, can be avoided with immediate treatment and preventive immunization of domesticated animals.

Measles is a potentially deadly and highly contagious virus present in the mucus found in the nose and throat of an infected person. Measles is best prevented with a vaccine and while there is no cure for it, doctors often prescribe palliative care to increase the patient’s natural ability to combat the disease.

Aspergillus is a common fungal mold known to cause serious blood and pulmonary infections. Although most people ingest it through breathing without having any problems, it can cause health concerns in individuals with lung diseases and those with weak immune systems. Aspergillosis, the infection caused by aspergillus, is usually treated using antifungal medication.

Rotavirus typically affects children and is usually transmitted through contaminated fecal matter. Infection can lead to high fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. The treatment usually consists of palliative care, with a focus on treating and preventing dehydration.

Anthrax or Bacillus Anthracis is one of the most dangerous germs in the world. It is passed from animals to humans and can be deadly. It no longer exists naturally and is only a threat as a biological weapon.

The Ebola virus affects the lining of blood vessels and prevents proper blood coagulation. It is spread through bodily fluids produced by infected individuals. There is no commercial treatment for the infection and whatever is given to the patient is mainly supportive. The patient is also isolated to prevent transmission.

The Human Immunodeficiency virus is one of the most dangerous germs that affect humans. It is spread through direct contact with body fluids such as saliva, blood, tears, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk. There is no cure for HIV and a vaccine has yet to be developed.

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